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        文章來源: 文章作者: 發布時間:2007-10-31 08:18 字體: [ ]  進入論壇

        Passage 4

        In science the meaning of the word "explain" suffers with civilization’s every step in search of reality.Science can not really explain electricity,magnetism,and gravition;their effects can be measured and predicted,but of their nature no more is known to the modern scientist than to Thales who first looked into the nature of the electrification1 of physicists2 reject the notion that man can ever discover what these mysterious forces "really" are. Electricity, Bertrand Russell says,is not a thing,like St.Paul’s Cathedral;it is a way in which things behave.When we have told how things behave when thry are electrified,and under what circumstances they are electrified,we have told all there is to tell.Until recently scientists would have disapproved3 of such an idea.Aristotle,for example,whose natural science dominated Western thought for two thousand years,believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from self-evident principle.He felt,for example,that it is a self-evident principle that everything in the universe has its proper place,hence one can deduce that objects fall to the groud because that’s where they belong,and smoke goes up because that’s where it belongs.The goal of Aristotelian science was to explain why things happen.Modern science was born when Galileo began trying to explain how things happen and thus originated the method of controlled experiment which now forms the basis of scientific investigation4.

        The aim of controlled scientific experiments is _____.[ANSWER]
        A)to explain why things happen
        B)to expalin how things happen
        C)to describe self-evident principles
        D)to support Aristelian science

        What principles most influenced scientific thought for two thoudsand years?[ANSWER]
        A)The speculations5 of Thales.
        B)The forces of electricity,magnetism and gravity.
        C)Aristotle’s natural science.
        D)Galileo’s discoveries.

        Bertrand Russell’s notion about electricity is _____.[ANSWER]
        A)disapproved of by most modern scientists
        B)in agreement with Aristotle’s theory of self-evident principle
        C)in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "how" things happen
        D)in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "why" things happen

        The passage says that until recently scientific [ANSWER]
        A)that there are mysterious forces in the universe
        B)that man cannot discover what forces "really" are
        C)that there are self-evident principle
        D)that we can discover why things behave as they do

        Modern science came into being _____.[ANSWER]
        A)when the method of controlled experiment was first introduced
        B)when Galileo succeeded in explaining how things happen
        C)when Aristelian scientists tried to explain why things happen
        D)when scientists were able to acquire an understanding of reality by reasoning


        1 electrification f0f379d5753986c07472e35b8394191f     
        • Electrification of the countryside--yes, that, too, is impressive. 是的。農村電氣化也是了不起的事。 來自演講部分
        • After electrification, it will readily stick to a wall or a ceiling. 起電后,它立即吸附到墻壁上或天花板上。 來自辭典例句
        2 physicists 18316b43c980524885c1a898ed1528b1     
        物理學家( physicist的名詞復數 )
        • For many particle physicists, however, it was a year of frustration. 對于許多粒子物理學家來說,這是受挫折的一年。 來自英漢非文學 - 科技
        • Physicists seek rules or patterns to provide a framework. 物理學家尋求用法則或圖式來構成一個框架。
        3 disapproved 3ee9b7bf3f16130a59cb22aafdea92d0     
        v.不贊成( disapprove的過去式和過去分詞 )
        • My parents disapproved of my marriage. 我父母不贊成我的婚事。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
        • She disapproved of her son's indiscriminate television viewing. 她不贊成兒子不加選擇地收看電視。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
        4 investigation MRKzq     
        • In an investigation,a new fact became known, which told against him.在調查中新發現了一件對他不利的事實。
        • He drew the conclusion by building on his own investigation.他根據自己的調查研究作出結論。
        5 speculations da17a00acfa088f5ac0adab7a30990eb     
        n.投機買賣( speculation的名詞復數 );思考;投機活動;推斷
        • Your speculations were all quite close to the truth. 你的揣測都很接近于事實。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
        • This possibility gives rise to interesting speculations. 這種可能性引起了有趣的推測。 來自《用法詞典》